La tercera globalización

Foreign Policy ha publicado el nuevo Globalization Index. Singapur sigue liderando el ranking, pero las primeras posiciones siguen lideradas por países OCDE (Spain el 25). China e India (el penúltimo) siguen estando lejos.

Even more, the index reveals the very different ways that countries are opening themselves up. For some, globalization is primarily an economic phenomenon. But there are many other ways of assessing how global a country is, from international phone calls and remittances sent abroad to the number of Internet users a country has and its participation in international treaties. France, for example, tops the rankings in political globalization—as measured by such factors as participation in treaties, peacekeeping, and international organizations—but it lags badly on the economic side because of high tariffs and stubborn agriculture subsidies. Clearly, states prefer some forms of globalization to others. But no matter the crisis du jour, the forces of globalization remain a reality for everyone. (…)

But for all their prominence in predictions about globalization’s future, the BRICs have generally scored poorly on the Globalization Index, in large part because they have massive populations that are still rural and isolated from the global economy. (…)

Today the BRICs are best known for the goods they supply to the rest of the world: everything from inexpensive consumer electronics to commodities and information technology services. But what happens when their consumers start connecting with the global marketplace? Experts believe that an economy starts to hit a “sweet spot” in terms of consumer spending when income per capita crosses $3,000 per year. Russia has already reached that level, and China and Brazil may be there in the next decade, with India following close behind. International banks are already lining up to help provide the plastic for the anticipated consumer boom. At that point, globalization will have an important new engine: millions of developing-world consumers armed with credit cards and a hunger to spend.

I continuando con el tema globalización, otro interesante artículo escrito por

The world has gotten used to the notion of India as an outsourcing powerhouse teeming with low-cost labor. But India is now emerging as a new kind of powerhouse: a fount of the next generation of global megacorporations.

“This is the third wave of globalization,” said Arindam Bhattacharya, a director at the Boston Consulting Group in New Delhi and co-author of a recent study on emerging multinational companies (Organizing for Global Advantage in China India and Other_Rapidly_Developing_Economies, interesante dar un vistazo). The first wave was colonialism, he said, and the second wave was the penetration of developing countries by multinationals from the United States, Europe and Japan.

As the Tata Group fans out internationally, the world is witnessing a rare event: the birth, in the former third world, of a diversified global business conglomerate – a company with the breadth and ambition of a General Electric, if not yet the heft.

Me parece un poco exagerado el artículo, todo esto no es tan nuevo, China lleva haciendolo por más de una década. Por otro lado tampoco veo clara la diferencia entre la primera y la segunda ola de globalización pues ambas se centraron en los mercado desarrollados. En cambio sí creo que la tercera ola és diferente pues busca los mercados en desarrollo como consumidores finales.

Es cierto que India (igual que China) esta creando “world champions” y, en el caso de Tata, su caracter de conglomerado me parece que podrían compararse con las chaebols coreanas, pero su porcentaje en el total de la economía india es muy inferior.

Otra interesante diferencia con las chaebols y zaibatsus es que estas empresas (Chinas e Indias) se especializan en productos para consumidores pobres. No tienen un margen de beneficios muy grande, pero quieren y pueden vender mucho pues los pobres siguen siendo la gran mayoría de la población mundial. Así pues, la escala demográfica importa.

¿Se ha descubierto un nuevo mercado? ¿La tercer globalización no será otra forma de explicar la emergencia de los BRICs?


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