Monthly Archives: August 2007

South Korea National Intelligence Service Webpage

I just found the National Intelligence Service webpage of South Korea. It has a very cool web design and also very interesting security posters than are a bit scary, but at the same time very different from the North Korea ones. They are so graphic you don’t even need to understand the reading.

But there is even more interesting stuff on the webpage, like the testimonies of NK defectors or the stories of the failed NK spies in SK.
Well, I don’t even know if the secret services should have a web page (there is not much information in it, hehe), but at least this ones is a happy one.

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Original Historic documentation for Asia politics

The first ones are from the UCLA Center for East Asian Studies:
Cambodia

The Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia, 1993

Premodern China

Zhou Dynasty (Shu Jing: Classic of Documents or Classic of History)

The Analects Attributed to Confucius [Kongfuzi], 551-479 BCE

The Tao Teh King [Daodejing], Or The Tao And Its Characteristics

Faxian (Fa-hsien) on Buddhist Kingdoms, ca. 400

Han Fei Zi (ca. 230 bce)

Ban Zhao [Pan Chao, ca. 45-116]

China

The Present Conditions of Religion in China, 2000

Annual Report on Military Power of People’s Republic of China, 2000

President Jiang Zemin Outlines Chinese Values, 1999

Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History : Documents

Constitution of the People’s Republic of China, 1982

Joint Communique of the United States and the People’s Republic of China, 1982

Joint Communique on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations, 1979

Joint Communique of the United States and the People’s Republic of China, 1972

Foreword to the Second Edition of The Quotations of Chairman Mao — Lin Biao, 1966

Mao Zedong, “China Will Take a Giant Stride Forward”, 1964

Mao Zedong, “Order to the Chinese People’s Volunteers”, 1950

Conversations betwen the Soviet Union’s Joseph Stalin and China’s Mao Zedong, 1950

Conversations betwen the Soviet Union’s Joseph Stalin and China’s Mao Zedong, 1949

Mao Zedong, “The Chinese people have stood up!”, 1949

The Boxer Protocol, 1901

Selected Documents: Boxer Rebellion (China Relief Expedition)

The First “Open Door Note”, 1899

Treaty of Shimonoseki, 1895

Shimonoseki Armistice, armistice ending Sino-Japanese War, 1895

Treaty of Nanjing (Nanking), 1842

Lin Zexu (LinTse-hsu) writing to Britain’s Queen Victoria to Protest the Opium Trade, 1839

Hong Kong

Joint Declaration of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the People’s Republic of China on the Question of Hong Kong, 1997

Constitution of Hong Kong, 1990

Extracts from the Lockhart Report on the New Territory, 8 October, 1898, from Great Britain

Statement of His Excellency Governor Sir John Pope Hennessy, KCMG, on the Census Returns and the Progress of the Colony, 1881

Hong Kong Governor Bonham to British Minister Lord Grey, 1849

Cap. Charles Elliot, Chief Superintendent of Trade, to Hong Kong Residents (February 2, 1841)

Indonesia

The Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia, 1945

Indonesian President Sukarno Opens the Bandung Conference of Non-Aligned States, April 18 1955

Japan

Japan-U.S. Joint Declaration on Security, 1996

Japanese PM Murayama Expresses Regret Over World War II Actions,1994 and 1995

Japan – Allied Powers Peace Treaty, 1951

The Constitution of Japan, 1946

Japanese World War II Surrender, 1945

Prime Minister TOJO Hideki: On the Sacred War, May 27, 1942

Japanese Note to the United States, December 7, 1941

Treaty of Shimonoseki, 1895

Shimonoseki Armistice, armistice ending Sino-Japanese War, 1895

Meiji-era Japanese Constitution, 1889

Korea

Agreement on Reconciliation, Nonagression, and Exchanges and Cooperation between South and North Korea, 1992

Constitution of the Republic of Korea, 1948

Treaty of Annexation, 1910

Laos

The Constitution of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, 1994

Mongolia

Constitution of Mongolia, 1992

Nepal

Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal, 1990

Philippines

U.S. Senator Albert J. Beveridge speaks on the Philippine Question, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C.,1900

Rudyard Kipling’s “The White Man’s Burden,” 1899

Taiwan

Constitution of the Republic of China, 1947

Treaty of Shimonoseki, 1895

Shimonoseki Armistice, armistice ending Sino-Japanese War, 1895

U.S.-Asia

Taiwan Relations Act, 1979

The Tonkin Gulf Resolution, 1964

U.S. Senator Albert J. Beveridge speaks on the Philippine Question, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C.,1900

Rudyard Kipling’s “The White Man’s Burden,” 1899

U.S.-China

Resolution on US Citizens/Residents of Chinese Ancestry Detained in China, June 25, 2001

President Bush on China after Spy Plane Incident: Different Values, Common Interests, April 12, 2001

George Bush: Religious Persecution “Unworthy” of China’s Past, Future, May 3, 2001

U.S. State Department Cautions U.S. Citizens Regarding Travel to China, 2001

U.S. Ambassador Prueher’s Letter to Chinese Foreign Minister Tang, 2001 (plane collision incident)

Annual Report on Military Power of People’s Republic of China, 2000

Senate Permanent Normal Trade Relations Vote, September 20, 2000

Taiwan Relations Act, 1979

Allied Forces Invade China to Relieve Foreign Legations During Boxer Rebellion: Allied Proclamation to the Inhabitants of Tianjin (Tientsin), 1900

U.S.-Japan

Japan-U.S. Joint Declaration on Security, 1996

Japan – Allied Powers Peace Treaty, 1951

Japanese World War II Surrender, 1945

Japanese Note to the United States, December 7, 1941

Message From the United States President to the Emperor of Japan December 6, 1941

United States Note to Japan November 26, 1941

Vietnam

The Constitution of Vietnam, 1992

Declaration of Independence, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, 1945

DESCLASSIFED DOCUMENTS US

Nixon-Zhou Enlai 1972 US governemt desclassifed documents

North Korea and the United States: Declassified Documents from the Bush I and Clinton Administrations

Cold War declassifed US documents (Vietnam, Korea, China, Cambodia)

From The World and Japan Database Project

Titles Languages Date
Imperial Rescript, December 8, 1941 Japanese English Dec 8 1941
The Cairo Declaration Japanese English Nov 27 1943
Yalta Agreements Japanese English Feb 11 1945
CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS Japanese English Jun 26 1945
The Potsdam Declaration Japanese English Jul 26 1945
Imperial Rescript, August 14, 1945 Japanese English Aug 14 1945
First Instrument of Surrender of Japanese and Japanese-Controlled Armed Forces Japanese English Sep 2 1945
North Atlantic Treaty (NATO Treaty) Japanese English Apr 4 1949
Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance between the USSR and the People’s Republic of China Japanese English Feb 14 1950
Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of the Philippines Japanese English Aug 30 1951
Security Treaty Between Australia, New Zealand, and the United States (ANZUS) Japanese English Sep 1 1951
SanFrancisco Peace Treaty with Japan Japanese English Sep 8 1951
Security Treaty Between the United States and Japan (old$B!K(J Japanese English Sep 8 1951
Exchanged Notes between Prime Minister Yoshida and Secretary of State Acheson Japanese English Sep 8 1951
Administrative Agreement between the United States and Japan Japanese English Feb 28 1952
Administrative Agreement between the United States and Japan, Office of the Special Representative of the President of the United States Japanese English Feb 28 1952
Treaty of Peace Between Japan and the Republic of China Japanese English Apr 28 1952
Mutual Defense Treaty between the United States and the Republic of Korea Japanese English Oct 1 1953
Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty$B!J(JManila Pact$B!K(J Japanese English Sep 8 1954
Mutual Defense Treaty between the United States and the Republic of China Japanese English Dec 2 1954
Warsaw Security Pact Japanese English May 14 1955
Joint Declaration by Soviet Union and Japan Japanese English Oct 19 1956
Security Treaty between the United States and Japan (new) Japanese English Jan 19 1960
Exchanged Notes, Regarding the Implementation of Article VI of Security Treaty between the United States and Japan Japanese English Jan 19 1960
Exchanged Notes, Regarding Exchanged Notes between Prime Minister Yoshida and Secretary of State Acheson Japanese English Jan 19 1960
Exchanged Notes, Regerding Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement between the United States and Japan Japanese English Jan 19 1960
Agreement under Article VI of Security Treaty between the United States and Japan,Regarding Facilities and Areas and the Status of United States Armed Forces in Japan Japanese English Jan 19 1960
Exchanged Notes, Regarding Article XII 6 (d) of the Agreement Regarding Facilities and Areas and the Status of United States Armed Forces in Japan Japanese English Jan 19 1960
Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance Between the USSR and North Korea Japanese English Jul 6 1961
Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance Between the People’s Republic of China and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Japanese English Jul 11 1961
Memorandum between Takasaki and Liao, Regarding Japan-China Trade Japanese English Nov 9 1962
Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water Japanese English Aug 5 1963
Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea Japanese English Jun 22 1965
Agreement between Japan and the United States Concerning Nanpo Shoto and Other Islands Japanese English Apr 5 1968
Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Japanese English Jul 1 1968
Joint Statement of Japanese Prime Minister Eisaku Sato and U.S. President Richard Nixon Japanese English Nov 21 1969
Treaty between the Federal Republic of Germany and the USSR Japanese English Aug 12 1970
Agreement between Japan and the United States Concerning the Ryukyu Islands and the Daito Islands Japanese English Jun 17 1971
Joint Communique Between the People’s Republic of China and the United States Japanese English Feb 27 1972
Treaty Between the United States and the USSR on the Limitation of Anti-Balistic Missile Systems Japanese English May 26 1972
Interim Agreement Between the United States and the USSR on Certain Measures with Respect to the Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms Japanese English May 26 1972
Protocol to the Interim Agreement between the United States and the USSR on Certain Measures With Respect to the Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms Japanese English May 26 1972
Basic Principles of Relations Between the United States and the USSR Japanese English May 29 1972
Joint Communique of South-North Korea (Official Translation) Japanese English Jul 4 1972
Joint Communique of Japan and the People’s Republic of China Japanese English Sep 29 1972
Declaration of ASEAN Concord, A Common Bond Exisiting Among the Member States of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Japanese English Feb 24 1976
Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia (original) Japanese English Feb 24 1976
National Defense Program Outline of Japan (old) Japanese English Oct 29 1976
Treaty of Peace and Friendship between Japan and the People’s Republic of China Japanese English Aug 12 1978
Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation between the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam and the USSR Japanese English Nov 3 1978
Guideline for Japan-U.S. Defense Cooperation Japanese English Nov 27 1978
Joint Communique on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations Between the United States and the People’s Republic of China Japanese English Dec 15 1978
United States-China Joint Communique on United States Arms Sales to Taiwan Japanese English Aug 17 1982
Plaza Accord Japanese English Sep 22 1985
Joint Declaration between Japan and EC Japanese English Jul 18 1991
Agreement between South-North Korea,Regarding Conciliation,Nonaggression,and Cooperation Japanese English Dec 13 1991
The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development Preamble Japanese English Jun 14 1992
Japan’s Official Development Assistance Charter (old) Japanese English Jun 30 1992
Tokyo Declaration on Japan-Russia Relations Japanese English Oct 13 1993
The Statement of Prime Minister Murayama on the Fiftieth Anniversary of the End of World War II Japanese English Oct 13 1993
Japan-U.S. Joint Declaration on Security, Alliance for the 21st Century Japanese English Apr 17 1996
Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia (as amended on 15 December 1987 and on 25 July 1998) Japanese English July 25 1998
Japan’s Official Development Assistance Charter (New) Japanese English Aug 29 2003

Fom Kimsoft on Korea:

The Korean War Web Resources – Mount Holyoke College

TAIWAN TREATIES (an other asian) like

Nuclear files

Khmer rouge trial documents

Asia politics documentaries (links fixed)

Streaming videos and documentaries can be very interesting and also very useful as teaching material (p.e. UOC), here I post some suggestions:

NORTH KOREA
A Day in the Life of North Korea
North Korean Nuclear Documentary
Welcome to North Korea
Children of the Secret State
Undercover in the secret state

Intelligence Challenges and North Korea: What Do We Really Know A…
Undercover In North Korea
Amarás al líder sobre todas las cosas 1/6
Historic short ones:
Kim Jong Il The Great Diplomat
Always Working Together For The People 3
Mass Gymnastic and Artistic Performance “Arirang”
Kim Jong Il The Great Warrior

CONFLICTS
Territorio Coreano, Dokdo (spanish 1)
Territorio Coreano, Dokdo (spanish) part.2
what’s the east sea vs Sea of Japan – A Globally Established Name Part1
CCTV “documentary”: Uyghur, Xinjiang, China vs
Genocide of Chinese communist party in East Turkistan.
Xinjiang – Securing China’s Second Shore 3-D GIS Geovisual
Tibet: Inferno under Dalai Lama & aristoric rule
Tibet 1959

NHK Special “The Impact of India” – Part 3 (Diplomacy, Domestic Pol…

JAPAN
A Conversation with Tsuyoshi Hasegawa (Japan surrender in the 2ww)
Democracy Without Competition in Japan: Opposition in a One-Party …
Godzilla and Postwar Japan
American influence on Japanese culture, Japanese soldiers prep for …
General MacArthur, General Alexander, “The Gathering Offensive” [A…
The Last Bomb” [AX2454]

Live-body Test Lab 731: Forgotten Holocaust in Asia (1 of 5)
Documentary: Hirohito and War Responsibility (Part 1 of 5)

Historic short ones:
Hirohito and Higashikuni Speeches Before the Diet
In the Name of the Emperor 天皇の名のもとにー南京大虐殺の真実
MOT 1947\: *DIET OF JAPAN\: MS National Diet building Tokyo
MOT 1939\: JAPAN PRIME MINISTER\: WS National Diet building (A…
WWII Propaganda – Popeye – USA VS JAPAN
Japan Surrenders 1945
Japan, Films of Hiroshima, 1946/08/05 (1946)

CHINA
Tiananmen Massacre April-June 1989
Tank Man

Chasing the Flame: The Lasting Legacy of the Olympic Games
China and the US: Geostrategic Partners, Competitors or Adversarie…
Bloody history of communism 03 (China) by Harun Yahya .com
Testimony of History-The Rape of Nanking 歴史の検証ー南京大虐殺30万の証明
Engineering An Empire : China
Rape of Nanking Nanjing Massacre Part I Atrocities in Asia vs THE RAPE OF NANKING” IS JUST A PROPAGANDA
Inside Red China – 1957
50th Anniversary of the People’s Republic of China [Part 1]
April 25 – event leading to persecution of Falun Gong part 1
BBC: Mao’s Bloody Revolution Revealed (Part One)
Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution: Part 3 (Sweet Jane)
Breaking With Old Ideas
Witness – The Long March – Part 1
Declassified: How China sent first man into space (Part 1/5)
SHANGHAI le dessous des cartes.avi
Le dessous des cartes – 2004.02.04 – LA CHINE (2 sur 2) – Un
Taiwan und China and ohters in Mit offenen Karten (in german)

Very short historic ones:
Chou En-Lai at the Bandung Conference

TAIWAN
Green vs Blue … Taiwan part 1
Green vs Blue … Taiwan part 2
Leader in Taiwan 60’~70′ Sun Yun Suan
The Taiwan Question, Historic Mismanagement Part 1 (of 21)

CAMBODIA
The Killing Fields

PHILLIPINES
This is the Philippines, history of the Philippines & true glory [AX5250…
Manila Free of Japanese Domination, 1945/03/22 (1945)

BURMA
Burma Report – May 30th Incident PART 1of3
Burma Report – May 30th Incident PART 2of3
Burma‘s Secret War
John_Pilger – Burma – Land of Fear

The Cross Border
From Birthday Towards 88 Ayay Daw-Bon
Myanmar Pro-Democracy Leader DawAungSanSuuKyi61stHappyBirth..
Rangoon demonstrations, August 2007

VIETNAM
The American War: The U.S. in Vietnam
Vietnam War – The Real Story
Tai Lieu Chien Tranh A Chau (Vietnam 35 Years War)
Dien Bien Phu
Ho Chi Minh: Vietnamese Independence (Britannica.com)
Asia Weekly August 10 2007 (setmanal)
Mahatma Gandhi : Film : MAHATMA – Life of Gandhi (1893-1914, Par…

Video interviews or conferences:

Elizabeth Economy – China’s Environmental Challenge
Conversations with History: Power Intervention & Stability in Asia, Na…
Conversations with History: U.S. Policy in Central Asia, Franklin Pierc…
Conversations with History: Korean Ambassador Sung-Joo Han
Conversations with History: China, the U.S. and World Order, with Ru…
Conversations with History: Lord Patten of Barnes
Conversations with History: John Pomfret
Economic Growth In India and China
Untying the Knot: Making Peace in the Taiwan Strait
China‘s Longue Durée & Mongol Occupation
Sino–U.S. Relations and China‘s Foreign Policy

Some other interesting for IR.

Conversations with History: Money and Power, with Niall Ferguson
Conversations with History: Activism, Anarchism, and Power, with No…: Chomsky
Conversations with History: Stephen M. Walt
Conversations with History: Through the Realist Lens, with John Mear…
Conversations with History: International Institutions, Robert O. Keoh…
U.S. Foreign Policy – Secret Wars of the CIA

And some funny ones:

Ali G – International Relations
A One Minute Guide to International Relations
The Long March Part 1

Please add any other suggestions as a comment.

China y Asia Central

Artículo de Nicolás de Pedro en Safe Democracy, destaco este párrafo:

No obstante, ninguno de los análisis que sugieren esta posibilidad (amenaza militar de China a Asia Central), argumenta sólidamente cuáles podrían ser los beneficios de tal viraje chino. Es decir, ¿qué beneficios objetivos podría conseguir Pekín de una política que conllevaría, muy posiblemente, un grave enfrentamiento con Moscú y, tal vez, también con Washington? La posibilidad de una creciente agresividad unilateral china resulta aún más improbable, si tenemos en cuenta que Asia central es, a pesar de todo, una de las áreas fronterizas más receptivas a las políticas de Pekín.

China and the interdependence of energy security

Hawksley in YaleGlobal: Today, a confident China bankrolls bad government in the Sudan and Zimbabwe and in the scramble for natural resources, has aspirations to control politically uncommitted swathes of the African continent. Extreme Islam has taken grip in Somalia, Nigeria and beyond and creeps toward cocoa farms of the Ivory Coast.

While inflexible thinking about state control over the economy by the hard left contributed to the collapse of communism, it may be the inflexibility of the free-market right that threatens the future of Western liberal democracy.

From Dilip Hiro in Asia Times: So dramatic has been the growth of the state-run company PetroChina that, in mid-2007, it was second only to ExxonMobil in its market value among energy corporations. Indeed, that year three Chinese companies made it on to the list of the world’s 10 most highly valued corporations. Only the US had more with five. (…)

“China’s oil diplomacy is putting the country on a collision course with the US and Western Europe, which have imposed sanctions on some of the countries where China is doing business,” commented William Mellor of Bloomberg News. The sentiment is echoed by the other side. “I see China and the US coming into conflict over energy in the years ahead,” said Jin Riguang, an oil-and-gas adviser to the Chinese government and a member of the Standing Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Council.

Nye in Project Syndicate:

China appears to believe that it can secure its energy imports by locking up oil contracts with pariah states like Sudan. However, while this short-sighted mercantilist approach creates foreign policy problems over issues like Darfur, it will not really protect China in a time of supply disruption. It would be far better to bring China (and India) into the IEA, and encourage normal Chinese participation in world markets.

Another new dimension of the energy security problem is the manner in which high prices and increased reserves have transferred power to energy producing countries. State-owned companies now control far more oil and gas reserves than do the traditional private energy companies once known as the seven sisters. Many of these state-owned companies in countries like Russia and Venezuela are not responding merely to market forces, but are using their newfound pricing power for political purposes.(…)

This year, China will surpass the US in emissions of greenhouse gases. It builds nearly two new coal-fired electricity plants each week. In such a world, energy security can no longer be summed up as greater energy independence. Instead, we must find better ways to cope with energy interdependence.

Gregory Clarck: A Farewell to Alms or Webber and Malthus revisited and the China one-child policy

Nicholas Wade (from the NYT) summerizes the argument of Clarck’n new book:

“the Industrial Revolution — the surge in economic growth that occurred first in England around 1800 — occurred because of a change in the nature of the human population. The change was one in which people gradually developed the strange new behaviors required to make a modern economy work. The middle-class values of nonviolence, literacy, long working hours and a willingness to save emerged only recently in human history…Because they grew more common in the centuries before 1800, whether by cultural transmission or evolutionary adaptation, the English population at last became productive enough to escape from poverty, followed quickly by other countries with the same long agrarian past.” But how and why did these values spread? Clark’s answer has a Darwinian ring to it: because, unlike today, in earlier centuries, the rich had more children than the poor. We are so accustomed to a world in which there is a strong negative correlation between income and fertility that this may seem surprising. But through careful analysis of ancient wills, Clark has shown that “generation after generation, the rich had more surviving children than the poor.” As Wade observes, “that meant there must have been constant downward social mobility as the poor failed to reproduce themselves and the progeny of the rich took over their occupations.” Thus, according to Clark, “the modern population of the English is largely descended from the economic upper classes of the Middle Ages.” He speculates, plausibly enough, that “as the progeny of the rich pervaded all levels of society…the behaviors that made for wealth could have spread with them.” Thus “thrift, prudence, negotiation and hard work were becoming values for communities that previously had been spendthrift, impulsive, violent and leisure loving.”

But all this is gone and now we have the opposite correlation in the world. The wealthier have less children than the poor. All this looks to me like a mixt of Malthus, Webber and Livi Bacci (and, if you like Emmanuel Todd).

Clark says that for non-western societies that is also an interesting model in order to develop. But Asian economies are developing very fast, so they are only going to keep growing if the values of the middle-high class continue to predominante? If the elite are able to keep having stronger birth rates? Well that sounds interesting, at least for China’s one child policy, that have been in fact only for the poor (the rich are able to pay the fine of having more children). Anyway, I don’t agree with the thesis, but I think is enough interesting to read the book.

Rodrik on currency and growth

Un excelente artículo de Dani Rodrik en Project Sindicate nos muestra una clara correlación entre tener una moneda devaluada y conseguir un mejor crecimiento económico. Así consiguieron el catch up Corea del Sur, Taiwan, Chile, o actualmente Argentina, China o India. En su estudio contempla que por cada 10% de devaluación de la moneda se consigue un crecimiento del 0,3 del PIB. Sin embargo, esto no parece poder explicar todo el crecimiento chino, con el yuan devaluado en un 45% (segun las estimaciones más exageradas) esto significaria el 1,5% del crecimento de PIB, que es del 9%.
Destaco algunas partes del artículo:

Currency undervaluation is such a potent instrument for growth for the simple reason that it creates incentives for the economy’s growth-promoting sectors. It increases the profitability of manufacturing and non-traditional agricultural sectors, which are the activities with both the highest level of labor productivity and with the most rapid rates of productivity increase.

An undervalued currency enables an economy to integrate into the world economy on the basis of strong export performance. It stimulates production (and hence employment), unlike overvaluation, which stimulates consumption. (…)

Once the monetary rules of the game incorporate the real exchange rate, and assuming that fiscal policy remains supportive, investors can look forward to a less volatile and more competitive currency. This will mean more investment in tradable industries, more employment overall, and faster growth.

You will know you have succeeded when the United States’ Treasury Secretary comes knocking on your door saying that you are guilty of manipulating your currency.

De estes parrafo final parece desprenderse que devaluar la moneda como medida para crecer significa problemas para EEUU. Pues claro, la devaluación de sus monedas se contempla en relación al dolar, en el fondo, ¿crecer de esta forma no es crecer a cuestas de EEUU? Si EEUU no consigue imponer su regimen financiero internacional, quizás deberá acabar abandnonandolo y junto a ello acabará esta estrategia de crecimiento.