Category Archives: south korea

El misterio del "muro de división" coreano

Ya se que muchos ya lo sabéis, ya se que no es nuevo, pero si necesitáis una excusa diré que es el 30 aniversario de la construcción de un muro que “no existe”: el muro de hormigón que separa ambas coreas.

Según Kim Jong Il, en 1978 los EEUU (ha escondidas de los surcoreanos o junto a ellos, dependiendo de las versiones) construyeron un muro de hormigón que separa físicamente ambas coreas a lo largo de toda la DMZ. El problema es que tal muro nunca ha sido visto desde Corea del Sur, pero Corea del Norte argumenta que en la vertiente surcoreana este se recubrió de tierra para disimularlo así que sólo puede ser visto desde Corea del Norte.

Dicho muro de 240 kilómetros se supone tiene entre 5 y 8 metros de altura, 5 de ancho en la base y 3 en altura y contiene garitas para ametralladoras. Es más, fuentes norcoreanas han explicado que dentro de algunos de estos muros hay tanques preparados para poder invadir el país.

La versión norteamericana y surcoreana es diferente. Según el departamento de estado no existe un muro así, solamente algunos muros en puntos concretos para poder evitar la entrada de tanques en caso de ataque.

Corea del norte ha pedido oficialmente más de 280 veces que se destruya este muro que separa ambas coreas y evita la reconciliación y el paso de personas. El problema es que corea del sur dice que no existe y que Corea del Norte no permite la libre circulación de sus ciudadanos, así que el muro es también una metáfora e incluso una excusa para no permitir el paso de personas de corea del norte a corea del sur.

Todo esto está muy bien, pero ¿existe realmente? Y hoy pensé, ¿y que dice google earth sobre el tema? Así que busqué en los foros y encontré esto (seguid la pista… es apasionante…):

View Larger Map

(el link aquí, pq a veces no se ve exactamente la parte del mapa que quería mostrar

Pinta de muro lo tiene, y no he seguido hasta el final pero unos cuanto kilómetros también. Podrían ser los restos de alguna antigua fortificación procedente de la guerra de corea pero se ha descartado que sea la antigua muralla coreana, porque está claramente detectada en otras partes. Sin embargo parece en bastante buen estado.

Y parece que Corea tiene gusto para los muros, pues acaban de terminar el muro marítimo más grande del mundo, el Saemangum Project.

No satisfecho con esto he buscado comparar con otros muros, como el de Israel. Aquí tenéis:

Ver mapa más grande

Y puestos con Israel, ¿que es lo que hay aquí y no quieren que veamos?

South Korea National Intelligence Service Webpage

I just found the National Intelligence Service webpage of South Korea. It has a very cool web design and also very interesting security posters than are a bit scary, but at the same time very different from the North Korea ones. They are so graphic you don’t even need to understand the reading.

But there is even more interesting stuff on the webpage, like the testimonies of NK defectors or the stories of the failed NK spies in SK.
Well, I don’t even know if the secret services should have a web page (there is not much information in it, hehe), but at least this ones is a happy one.

Original Historic documentation for Asia politics

The first ones are from the UCLA Center for East Asian Studies:
Cambodia

The Constitution of the Kingdom of Cambodia, 1993

Premodern China

Zhou Dynasty (Shu Jing: Classic of Documents or Classic of History)

The Analects Attributed to Confucius [Kongfuzi], 551-479 BCE

The Tao Teh King [Daodejing], Or The Tao And Its Characteristics

Faxian (Fa-hsien) on Buddhist Kingdoms, ca. 400

Han Fei Zi (ca. 230 bce)

Ban Zhao [Pan Chao, ca. 45-116]

China

The Present Conditions of Religion in China, 2000

Annual Report on Military Power of People’s Republic of China, 2000

President Jiang Zemin Outlines Chinese Values, 1999

Tiananmen Square, 1989: The Declassified History : Documents

Constitution of the People’s Republic of China, 1982

Joint Communique of the United States and the People’s Republic of China, 1982

Joint Communique on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations, 1979

Joint Communique of the United States and the People’s Republic of China, 1972

Foreword to the Second Edition of The Quotations of Chairman Mao — Lin Biao, 1966

Mao Zedong, “China Will Take a Giant Stride Forward”, 1964

Mao Zedong, “Order to the Chinese People’s Volunteers”, 1950

Conversations betwen the Soviet Union’s Joseph Stalin and China’s Mao Zedong, 1950

Conversations betwen the Soviet Union’s Joseph Stalin and China’s Mao Zedong, 1949

Mao Zedong, “The Chinese people have stood up!”, 1949

The Boxer Protocol, 1901

Selected Documents: Boxer Rebellion (China Relief Expedition)

The First “Open Door Note”, 1899

Treaty of Shimonoseki, 1895

Shimonoseki Armistice, armistice ending Sino-Japanese War, 1895

Treaty of Nanjing (Nanking), 1842

Lin Zexu (LinTse-hsu) writing to Britain’s Queen Victoria to Protest the Opium Trade, 1839

Hong Kong

Joint Declaration of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the People’s Republic of China on the Question of Hong Kong, 1997

Constitution of Hong Kong, 1990

Extracts from the Lockhart Report on the New Territory, 8 October, 1898, from Great Britain

Statement of His Excellency Governor Sir John Pope Hennessy, KCMG, on the Census Returns and the Progress of the Colony, 1881

Hong Kong Governor Bonham to British Minister Lord Grey, 1849

Cap. Charles Elliot, Chief Superintendent of Trade, to Hong Kong Residents (February 2, 1841)

Indonesia

The Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia, 1945

Indonesian President Sukarno Opens the Bandung Conference of Non-Aligned States, April 18 1955

Japan

Japan-U.S. Joint Declaration on Security, 1996

Japanese PM Murayama Expresses Regret Over World War II Actions,1994 and 1995

Japan – Allied Powers Peace Treaty, 1951

The Constitution of Japan, 1946

Japanese World War II Surrender, 1945

Prime Minister TOJO Hideki: On the Sacred War, May 27, 1942

Japanese Note to the United States, December 7, 1941

Treaty of Shimonoseki, 1895

Shimonoseki Armistice, armistice ending Sino-Japanese War, 1895

Meiji-era Japanese Constitution, 1889

Korea

Agreement on Reconciliation, Nonagression, and Exchanges and Cooperation between South and North Korea, 1992

Constitution of the Republic of Korea, 1948

Treaty of Annexation, 1910

Laos

The Constitution of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, 1994

Mongolia

Constitution of Mongolia, 1992

Nepal

Constitution of the Kingdom of Nepal, 1990

Philippines

U.S. Senator Albert J. Beveridge speaks on the Philippine Question, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C.,1900

Rudyard Kipling’s “The White Man’s Burden,” 1899

Taiwan

Constitution of the Republic of China, 1947

Treaty of Shimonoseki, 1895

Shimonoseki Armistice, armistice ending Sino-Japanese War, 1895

U.S.-Asia

Taiwan Relations Act, 1979

The Tonkin Gulf Resolution, 1964

U.S. Senator Albert J. Beveridge speaks on the Philippine Question, U.S. Senate, Washington, D.C.,1900

Rudyard Kipling’s “The White Man’s Burden,” 1899

U.S.-China

Resolution on US Citizens/Residents of Chinese Ancestry Detained in China, June 25, 2001

President Bush on China after Spy Plane Incident: Different Values, Common Interests, April 12, 2001

George Bush: Religious Persecution “Unworthy” of China’s Past, Future, May 3, 2001

U.S. State Department Cautions U.S. Citizens Regarding Travel to China, 2001

U.S. Ambassador Prueher’s Letter to Chinese Foreign Minister Tang, 2001 (plane collision incident)

Annual Report on Military Power of People’s Republic of China, 2000

Senate Permanent Normal Trade Relations Vote, September 20, 2000

Taiwan Relations Act, 1979

Allied Forces Invade China to Relieve Foreign Legations During Boxer Rebellion: Allied Proclamation to the Inhabitants of Tianjin (Tientsin), 1900

U.S.-Japan

Japan-U.S. Joint Declaration on Security, 1996

Japan – Allied Powers Peace Treaty, 1951

Japanese World War II Surrender, 1945

Japanese Note to the United States, December 7, 1941

Message From the United States President to the Emperor of Japan December 6, 1941

United States Note to Japan November 26, 1941

Vietnam

The Constitution of Vietnam, 1992

Declaration of Independence, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, 1945

DESCLASSIFED DOCUMENTS US

Nixon-Zhou Enlai 1972 US governemt desclassifed documents

North Korea and the United States: Declassified Documents from the Bush I and Clinton Administrations

Cold War declassifed US documents (Vietnam, Korea, China, Cambodia)

From The World and Japan Database Project

Titles Languages Date
Imperial Rescript, December 8, 1941 Japanese English Dec 8 1941
The Cairo Declaration Japanese English Nov 27 1943
Yalta Agreements Japanese English Feb 11 1945
CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS Japanese English Jun 26 1945
The Potsdam Declaration Japanese English Jul 26 1945
Imperial Rescript, August 14, 1945 Japanese English Aug 14 1945
First Instrument of Surrender of Japanese and Japanese-Controlled Armed Forces Japanese English Sep 2 1945
North Atlantic Treaty (NATO Treaty) Japanese English Apr 4 1949
Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance between the USSR and the People’s Republic of China Japanese English Feb 14 1950
Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of the Philippines Japanese English Aug 30 1951
Security Treaty Between Australia, New Zealand, and the United States (ANZUS) Japanese English Sep 1 1951
SanFrancisco Peace Treaty with Japan Japanese English Sep 8 1951
Security Treaty Between the United States and Japan (old$B!K(J Japanese English Sep 8 1951
Exchanged Notes between Prime Minister Yoshida and Secretary of State Acheson Japanese English Sep 8 1951
Administrative Agreement between the United States and Japan Japanese English Feb 28 1952
Administrative Agreement between the United States and Japan, Office of the Special Representative of the President of the United States Japanese English Feb 28 1952
Treaty of Peace Between Japan and the Republic of China Japanese English Apr 28 1952
Mutual Defense Treaty between the United States and the Republic of Korea Japanese English Oct 1 1953
Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty$B!J(JManila Pact$B!K(J Japanese English Sep 8 1954
Mutual Defense Treaty between the United States and the Republic of China Japanese English Dec 2 1954
Warsaw Security Pact Japanese English May 14 1955
Joint Declaration by Soviet Union and Japan Japanese English Oct 19 1956
Security Treaty between the United States and Japan (new) Japanese English Jan 19 1960
Exchanged Notes, Regarding the Implementation of Article VI of Security Treaty between the United States and Japan Japanese English Jan 19 1960
Exchanged Notes, Regarding Exchanged Notes between Prime Minister Yoshida and Secretary of State Acheson Japanese English Jan 19 1960
Exchanged Notes, Regerding Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement between the United States and Japan Japanese English Jan 19 1960
Agreement under Article VI of Security Treaty between the United States and Japan,Regarding Facilities and Areas and the Status of United States Armed Forces in Japan Japanese English Jan 19 1960
Exchanged Notes, Regarding Article XII 6 (d) of the Agreement Regarding Facilities and Areas and the Status of United States Armed Forces in Japan Japanese English Jan 19 1960
Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance Between the USSR and North Korea Japanese English Jul 6 1961
Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation and Mutual Assistance Between the People’s Republic of China and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Japanese English Jul 11 1961
Memorandum between Takasaki and Liao, Regarding Japan-China Trade Japanese English Nov 9 1962
Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests in the Atmosphere, in Outer Space and Under Water Japanese English Aug 5 1963
Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea Japanese English Jun 22 1965
Agreement between Japan and the United States Concerning Nanpo Shoto and Other Islands Japanese English Apr 5 1968
Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Japanese English Jul 1 1968
Joint Statement of Japanese Prime Minister Eisaku Sato and U.S. President Richard Nixon Japanese English Nov 21 1969
Treaty between the Federal Republic of Germany and the USSR Japanese English Aug 12 1970
Agreement between Japan and the United States Concerning the Ryukyu Islands and the Daito Islands Japanese English Jun 17 1971
Joint Communique Between the People’s Republic of China and the United States Japanese English Feb 27 1972
Treaty Between the United States and the USSR on the Limitation of Anti-Balistic Missile Systems Japanese English May 26 1972
Interim Agreement Between the United States and the USSR on Certain Measures with Respect to the Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms Japanese English May 26 1972
Protocol to the Interim Agreement between the United States and the USSR on Certain Measures With Respect to the Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms Japanese English May 26 1972
Basic Principles of Relations Between the United States and the USSR Japanese English May 29 1972
Joint Communique of South-North Korea (Official Translation) Japanese English Jul 4 1972
Joint Communique of Japan and the People’s Republic of China Japanese English Sep 29 1972
Declaration of ASEAN Concord, A Common Bond Exisiting Among the Member States of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Japanese English Feb 24 1976
Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia (original) Japanese English Feb 24 1976
National Defense Program Outline of Japan (old) Japanese English Oct 29 1976
Treaty of Peace and Friendship between Japan and the People’s Republic of China Japanese English Aug 12 1978
Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation between the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam and the USSR Japanese English Nov 3 1978
Guideline for Japan-U.S. Defense Cooperation Japanese English Nov 27 1978
Joint Communique on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations Between the United States and the People’s Republic of China Japanese English Dec 15 1978
United States-China Joint Communique on United States Arms Sales to Taiwan Japanese English Aug 17 1982
Plaza Accord Japanese English Sep 22 1985
Joint Declaration between Japan and EC Japanese English Jul 18 1991
Agreement between South-North Korea,Regarding Conciliation,Nonaggression,and Cooperation Japanese English Dec 13 1991
The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development Preamble Japanese English Jun 14 1992
Japan’s Official Development Assistance Charter (old) Japanese English Jun 30 1992
Tokyo Declaration on Japan-Russia Relations Japanese English Oct 13 1993
The Statement of Prime Minister Murayama on the Fiftieth Anniversary of the End of World War II Japanese English Oct 13 1993
Japan-U.S. Joint Declaration on Security, Alliance for the 21st Century Japanese English Apr 17 1996
Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia (as amended on 15 December 1987 and on 25 July 1998) Japanese English July 25 1998
Japan’s Official Development Assistance Charter (New) Japanese English Aug 29 2003

Fom Kimsoft on Korea:

The Korean War Web Resources – Mount Holyoke College

TAIWAN TREATIES (an other asian) like

Nuclear files

Khmer rouge trial documents

Suicide rates in South Korea and the Internet

Awful article in the IHT titled In South Korea, the Internet is a path to suicide, By Choe Sang-Hun, May 20, 2007 about a worrying tendence. So the title it looks like there is something very wrong on the Internet that makes people commit suicide. But lets look at the examples:

“On April 7, the bodies of two women were found in a one-room apartment south of Seoul. They had sealed the room with plastic tape and then heated charcoal on a stove. They died from carbon monoxide poisoning when the room filled with the charcoal’s fumes. The two had met on the Internet.

On March 14, five young men and women who had twice attempted suicide as a group drove to a seaside motel to discuss more effective methods. One, having a change of heart, slipped out and called the police, who said later that the five had made their suicide pact over the Internet.”

Internet it’s only the forum, the comunication method, not the responsable, it’s like blaming the mobile phone if, after ordering a pizza, the delivery is late. So then the title would be: Mobile phones cause pizza delay!

In the past 25 years, South Korea has gone from having one of the world’s lower suicide rates to having one of its highest. (…)In 2005, South Korea had 24.7 suicides per 100,000 people, according to the Korea National Statistical Office. In April, Japan announced measures to try to reduce its suicides from a rate of 24.2 in 2005. The rate for the United States in 2002 was 10.2.

And it continues:

Meanwhile, the traditional support base, the family, is crumbling; divorce rates are at a record high. Guarantees of lifetime employment evaporated with the Asian financial crisis in the 1990s.

In 2005, in the first rally of its kind, hundreds of high school students demonstrated in downtown Seoul, shouting: “We aren’t study machines!”

They had gathered to mourn 15 students from around the country who had killed themselves, apparently broken by the intense pressure to succeed.

That looks to me much better explanations than the Internet…

But the new problem/characteristic is that most of the new suicides are social, with a pact with somebody else, usually done through Internet bc it’s anonymous, easy, cheap and it works so well. So Internet is probably the best way to meet and comunícate with people with the same interests, no matter what kind of interest!